Muscle Fiction – The 5 Myths Of Muscle Training

If you’v been training, here’s a short list of bodybuilding fiction.

1. 12-Rep rule

Most weight training program include this much repetitions for gaining muscle. The truth is this approach places the muscles with not enough tension for effective muscle gain. High tension e.g. heavy weights provides muscle growth in which the muscle grows much larger, leading to the maximum gains in strength. Having longer tension time boosts the muscle size by generating the structures around the muscle fibers, improving endurance.

The standard prescription of 8 to 12 repetitions provides a balance but by just using that program all of the time, you do not generate the greater tension levels that is provided by the heavier weights and lesser reps, and the longer tension achieved with lighter weights and more repetitions. Change the number of reps and adjust the weights to stimulate all types of muscle growth.

 

2. Three-set rule

The truth is there’s nothing wrong with three sets but then again there is nothing amazing about it either. The number of sets you perform should be base on your goals and not on a half-century old rule. The more repetitions you do on an exercise, the fewer sets you should do, and vice versa. This keeps the total number of repetitions done of an exercise equal.

 

3. Three to four exercises per group

The truth is this is a waste of time. Combined with twelve reps of three sets, the total number of reps amount to 144. If your doing this much reps for a muscle group your not doing enough. Instead of doing too many varieties of exercises, try doing 30 to 50 reps. That can be anywhere from 2 sets of 15 reps or 5 sets of 10 reps.

 

4. My knees, my toes

It is a gym folklore that you “should not let your knees go past your toes.” Truth is that leaning forward a little too much is more likely a cause of injury. In 2003, Memphis University researchers confirmed that knee stress was almost thirty percent higher when the knees are allowed to move beyond the toes during a squat.

But hip stress increased nearly 10 times or (1000 percent) when the forward movement of the knee was restricted. Because the squatters needed to lean their body forward and that forces the strain to transfer to the lower back.

Focus on your upper body position and less on the knee. Keep the torso in an upright position as much as possible when doing squats and lunges. These reduces the stress generated on the hips and back. To stay upright, before squatting, squeeze the shoulder blades together and hold them in that position; and then as you squat, keep the forearms 90 degree to the floor.

 

5. Lift weights, draw abs

The truth is the muscles work in groups to stabilize the spine, and the most important muscle group change depending on the type of exercise. The transverse abdominis is not always the most important muscle group. Actually, for most exercise, the body automatically activates the muscle group that are needed most for support of the spine. So if you focus only on the transverse abdominis, it can recruit wrong muscles and limit the right muscles. This increases the chance of injury, and reduces the weight that can be lifted.

Exercise and Hypertension

It seems as though many Americans are living a life that leads to high blood pressure or hypertension. As people age, the situation gets worse. Nearly half of all older Americans have hypertension. This disease makes people five times more prone to strokes, three times more likely to have a heart attack, and two to three times more likely to experience a heart failure.

The problem with this disease is that nearly one third of the folks who have hypertension do not know it because they never feel any direct pain. But overtime the force of that pressure damages the inside surface of your blood vessels.

However, according to experts, hypertension is not predestined. Reducing salt intake, adopting a desirable dietary pattern losing weight and exercising can all help prevent hypertension.

Obviously, quitting bad habits and eating a low fat diet will help, but the most significant part that you can do is to exercise. And just as exercise strengthens and improves limb muscles, it also enhances the health of the heart muscles.

Heart and Exercise

The exercise stimulates the development of new connections between the impaired and the nearly normal blood vessels, so people who exercise had a better blood supply to all the muscle tissue of the heart.

The human heart basically, supply blood to an area of the heart damaged in a “myocardial infarction” heart attack is a condition, in which, the myocardium or the heart muscle does not get enough oxygen and other nutrients and so it begins to die.

For this reason and after a series of careful considerations, some researchers have observed that exercise can stimulate the development of these life saving detours in the heart. One study further showed that moderate exercise several times a week is more effective in building up these auxiliary pathways than extremely vigorous exercise done twice as often.

Such information has led some people to think of exercise as a panacea for heart disorders, a fail-safe protection against hypertension or death. That is not so. Even marathon runners that have suffered hypertension, and exercise cannot overcome combination of other risk factor.

What Causes Hypertension?

Sometimes abnormalities of the kidney are responsible. There is also a study wherein the researchers identified more common contributing factors such as heredity, obesity, and lack of physical activity. And so, what can be done to lower blood pressure and avoid the risk of developing hypertension? Again, exercise seems to be just what the doctor might order.

If you think that is what he will do, then, try to contemplate on this list and find some ways how you can incorporate these things into your lifestyle and start to live a life free from the possibilities of developing hypertension. But before you start following the systematic instructions, it would be better to review them first before getting into action.

1. See your doctor
Check with your doctor before beginning an exercise program. If you make any significant changes in your level of physical activity, particularly if those changes could make large and sudden demands on your circulatory system ?check with your doctors again.

2. Take it slow

Start at a low, comfortable level of exertion and progress gradually. The program is designed in two stages to allow for a progressive increase in activity.

3. Know your limit

Determine your safety limit for exertion. Use some clues such as sleep problems or fatigue the day after a workout to check on whether you are overdoing it. Once identified, stay within it. Over-exercising is both dangerous and unnecessary.

4. Exercise regularly

You need to work out a minimum of three times a week and a maximum of five times a week to get the most benefit. Once you are in peak condition, a single workout a week can maintain the muscular benefits. However, cardiovascular fitness requires more frequent activity.

5. Exercise at a rate within your capacity

The optimum benefits for older exercisers are produced by exercise at 40% to 60% of capacity.

Indeed, weight loss through exercise is an excellent starting point if you wan tot prevent hypertension. Experts say that being overweight is linked to an increased risk of developing hypertension, and losing weight decreases the risk.

Quit Smoking With Exercise

When you decide to stop smoking, you’ll bring on other changes in your life as well. Smoking is a very addictive habit, meaning that it is very hard to quit. There are a lot of changes that take place, although exercise can be a big help to you when you decide to quit.

Try to set a new routine, such as working out or going to the gym. If that isn’t possible, you should try waking up earlier and going for a short walk. If you can turn that walk into a run or a jog, it is going to be very stimulating and the best way that you can start your day.

Keep in mind that exercise doesn’t really mean pumping metal. If you don’t have the time to stop by the gym every day, then it isn’t really that big of a problem, as you can always choose to workout at home.

Whether you choose to workout at home or at a gym, you should always remember that regularity is the
key. It isn’t getting started that’s the difficult part, it’s sticking to a regular exercise program that is difficult and proves to be stumbling block for most people.

Some people have a great start. They will buy track suits, gym wear, running shoes, and a lot of other gear, so their first day at the gym is almost like a celebration. As the days go by, they find it very difficult to meet the demands and their routine will slow down a lot and finally come to a complete exercise burnout.

One mistake that several people make is choosing the evenings to exercise. If evenings fit your lifestyle, then it’s fine. For most people however, the evening hours are when they are completely pooped. By the evening most of us are drained, and simply too tired for exercise. Therefore, it is always best to set some time aside for exercise in the morning.

In the morning, wake up a half an hour or so earlier, put on your shoes, and hit the road. Most roads are less crowded in the morning and less polluted as well, making it a wonderful and relaxing way to start the day.

You should also steer clear from the coffee and try tea instead. If you are moving around in the house, try playing music. You can also redecorate your room by adding a few pictures around. When you redecorate, you should get rid of everything that reminds you of smoking.

Plan your day where you’ll have something fun to do at the end of the day. It doesn’t need to be something that involves money, as you don’t want to end up bankrupt. Spending time with family, playing games, or going for a walk with your family are all good activities.

Watching television doesn’t really fit into the list. The reason is because television isn’t something that demands a lot of attention. You can easily do something else while you are watching television.

You should also make a list of things that build up your stress and try to avoid them. If it isn’t possible, you should try to find out some some ways to bust stress and use them. Whatever you do, you shouldn’t use stress as an excuse to start smoking.

There are many other methods that you can use to beat stress. You can try breathing exercises, mediation, or even music. Another great way to beat stress is using the distressing ball. If you don’t have one or access to one, you can always wiggle your fingers and toes. This too is a great and natural method to beat stress.

 

Free Weight vs Machine Exercise

Something you need to keep in mind and never forget is that when you exercise, you are training for life. You still may spend an hour a day in the gym, although that will still leave another 23 hours or so for your muscles to function without using any fancy equipment.

Whenever you do any type of exercise, the movement of your body during the exercise is known as the range of motion. The more difficult the range of motion is, the more effective the exercise will be, because your body has to work twice as hard to perform the movement.

Take for the instance the classic dumbbell bicep curl. If you aren’t familiar with the exercise, it is performed by standing up straight with your palms facing forward, and a pair of dumbbells held down by your sides. You’ll contract your biceps to bring the dumbbells up to your shoulder height, then repeat the exercise as many times as you wish.

Using that same movement for exercise on a bicep curl machine, you should sit down, brace your upper arms on a pad, grasp 2 handles that are in front of you, then perform the same movement as above to move the handles in an upward motion.

Now, looking at the muscle contractions in this exercise, you are contracting essentially your biceps if you are using the curl machine, and that is pretty much all you are doing. When you use the machine you are sitting down, which will limit just how much your shoulders give. The machine has several muscles used in this exercise limited to the biceps, as well as
the muscles in your forearms and fingers.

Most of the time, when using machine weights, you will always be limited as to what type of exercise you can perform. You must always follow a strict procedure, which is pretty much the same with free weights. Unlike free weights, machine weights offer a certain degree of resistance.

One of the best thing about free weights is the fact that you move a little chuck around to select the weight you want to use. Instead of dragging it over to your exercise area, you simply select it on the machine. When you are tired during a workout, this can be a blessing.

A lot of people argue in the fact that free weights are the best for your body. While this is normally true, many people out there feel that machine weights are the best. There are pros
and cons with both machines, although free weights have been around a lot longer and have been proven time after time to achieve dramatic results.

Body builders for example, have used free weights over the years to build very impressive bodies. If you ask most of them about machine weights, they would probably laugh at you and tell you that you need to quit joking around. In a nutshell, free weights will use more of your muscles than the machines do, which makes them more effective overall. This doesn’t mean that the machines are a waste of use, as they offer some great advantages. In some cases, it is best to stabilize the muscles that are being used in a movement, which is where machines are the best to use.

The decision on which to use for you should be based on what you hope to achieve with lifting weights and where you plan to use the equipment, such as home or at a gym. Both systems are great for your body, although the free weights are best to use if you want the best possible workout, and always ensure that your muscles are getting the right workouts they need.

Cross Training for Fitness and Fat Loss

The numbers on your scale do not indicate whether you are fit or fat. Far more significant than your total body weight is the composition of your body tissue. If a man’s fatty tissue is higher than 14% of his body mass, or if a woman’s is more than 20%, he or she is overweight, or more precisely, over-fat (in this context it simply means too much fat tissue).

A small amount of fat is needed for padding the internal organs and as insulation under the skin. Excess fat leads to such diseases as diabetes, gout, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and gallbladder problems. There are very few, very fat persons. The reason is that the fittest, not the fattest survive.

The problem now is focused on how to resolve the problem. The problem with most people who want to lose weight is that they have the propensity to concentrate more on getting those numbers lower than what they are seeing now. What happens next is that they strive harder to achieve a lower weight, according to the “ever-reliable” result of the weighing scale.

It would be more important to think of the human body as a heat-exchange engine that works on the basic principles of energy physics. The caloric balance equals the total calorie intake minus the total calorie expenditure.

Some of the calories people ingest are used for basal metabolism. As people get old, their bodies require fewer calories for this basic upkeep. Some calories are excreted as waste products. Some go into work metabolism — the energy expenditure required for any physical activity.

Hence, if people take in more calories than are used by these functions, there is a definite caloric excess. By the laws of physics, energy is transformed rather than destroyed. In this case, each excess of 3,500 calories is changed into a pound of fat. If people want to reverse this process, they have to burn up 3,500 calories to lose a single pound.

Winning the War Against Fat

When you think of fighting fat with exercise, you probably think of hours of hard, sweaty exertion. If this is the case, then, you will not get any farther. This is because people who are so much into losing more by exerting more effort tend to get bored easily.

Why? Because experts contend that when people exert more effort than what they are capable of doing creates a tendency to develop weariness and ennui. Hence, they give up, stop doing their routine exercises, and end up sulking in the corner with a bag of chips that seems to have all the bad calories in this world.

Now, you might ask, “What should be done instead?” The answer: cross training.

After some intensive studies and experimentation, health experts were able to come up with the concept of incorporating cross training in order to overcome or break the monotony or dullness in an exercise program.

Cross training refers to the integration of diverse movements or activities into a person抯 conventional exercise routine. The main purpose of incorporating cross training into an exercise program is to avoid overdoing excess muscle damages and to put a stop to an imminent boredom.

Three of the most commonly used activities whenever a person decides to engage into cross training are swimming, running, and cycling.

In cross training, distance is one way to extend your activity as your condition improves. For this reason, you need to traverse a measured distance.

If possible, swim the course and measure the distance. If you will be using a running track, such courses usually are a quarter-mile per lap for a complete circuit.

Cross training offers a variety of benefits for fitness and fat-loss. It builds up the strength and endurance of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. It has also some tranquilizing effect on the nerves, and it burns up calories as much as it makes your weight loss more bearable.

Cross training has three basic components:

1. Endurance exercises to condition the heart, lungs, and blood vessels and to induce relaxation. These begin with a careful planned walking and jogging regimen, depending on fitness level.

2. Exercises to strengthen the muscles, particularly those important to good posture. These include some activities that are selected to encourage some people who are already burnt out with a particular routine.

3. Exercises to improve joint mobility and prevent or relieve aches and pains. These consist of a series of static stretching positions that are safe and effective for most of the people who wish to try to lose some fat.

Indeed, cross training is a great way to modify the concept of exercising and losing fat without having to endure monotonous activities. In fact, the idea of exercising is to like what you are doing, hence, if you engage into cross training, you will be aware of it that you have already achieve your desired weight.

Boiled down, cross training is, certainly, one way of having fun.

https://youtu.be/fgKX5VAz9SE

Benefits of Resistance Training

Do you want to have a stronger and more beautiful body? Then the best thing to do is get on your feet and start doing the resistance training.

 

What Is Resistance Training?

Resistance training involves activities that use weights, machines and even body weight to work out the muscles properly. It is also known as strength training or weight training. This can be very helpful in achieving a healthier body.

This kind of training is usually associated with athletes who have to build up their bodies. Most people would think that when resistance training is done, the body will grow bigger. Actually it will not. Resistance training is simply about increasing the strength of the body, not its size.

Actually, this can be practiced by anyone. It basically builds and tones the muscle to give the body a better look. This training program is even very much advisable to the elders. The usual training programs undergone by the elders are standing free-weights resistance or the moderate-intensity seated machine training.

 

How Does Resistance Training Work?

A resistance training program will include the use of various exercise equipment and machines like the bench press, dumbbell or barbell. When the equipment is used, the muscles of the body will be pitted against the weight. The cells of the body will then adapt to the extra weight. This will then result to hypertrophy or the enlarging and increasing of the nerve cells to help in the muscle contraction.

Before doing any resistance training, it will be best to consult first with the doctor. This goes especially for people who have medical conditions or are overweight. This kind of training is not something that you can explore on your own. You have to know the proper equipment for the needs of your body. The body must also be conditioned first before taking in the weights.

Resistance training can also be done without resorting to the equipment. Doing push-ups is one good example. You can do it just about anywhere where there is enough space for you to move. This time it is your own body weight that will be pitted against the muscles. So those who are a bit constrained in the budget can still do resistance trainings.

 

What Are the Benefits of Resistance Training?

1. Increase Bone Mineral Density

Bones are constantly remodelling, meaning the tissues break down at the same time they build up. The peak of remodelling takes place during puberty. However, as a person ages, there may be problems with the bone mineral density as the remodelling may not be as active anymore. This is especially a problem to post-menopausal women.

Bone mineral density is usually supported by the hormones. To address the problem of not having the hormones to maintain the bone mineral density, physical activity is the next best option. Resistance training is one physical activity that can address this.

2. Increase Strength

Strong bones and strong muscles will be developed as you undergo the resistance training program.

3. Increase the Range of Activities

When your body is strong enough to carry some considerable weight, then definitely you will also be capable of doing more strenuous activities. You are less likely to be lazy and you can live a more active lifestyle.

4. Reduce the Body Fat

Pitting the weights on your muscle will definitely give it the body the exercise it needs and get rid of the undesirable fats. Thus expect the tone of the body to improve. Even more, expect the body to look better, to be leaner.

5. Improve State of the Elders

For the elderly, undergoing a resistance training program will help improve their health and decrease the risks brought about by the age. They can be more independent, without needing to rely on other people for doing simple things. Being able to do so will also decrease the risk of injuries in the elders

6. Improve Heart Condition

Regularly doing resistance training can result to a lowered heart rate and lowered blood pressure, especially after exercise. The risk of heart diseases is reduced to a considerable extent.

 

This kind of training however must be properly done. It requires commitment and consistency. It will have to be done in a regular basis, following a schedule that the doctor or the physical trainer would recommend. If done incorrectly, the benefits of the program may not be enjoyed and it can even result the injury.

The key here is to simply take your time. Do things one step at a time correctly. As your body condition improves, then move on to more challenging tasks. The strength of the body and its overall look are at stake in the resistance training. So you better be sure to do it properly.

Tips To Lose Weight Healthily

For people who want to lose weight, the first thing they think about is usually reducing the amount of food they eat. This may be quite a solution but not exactly the best there is. In fact, reducing too much may even be dangerous to your health. So how does one lose weight effectively and safely? Here are some points you should consider when trying to lose weight:

 

Beware of the Crash Diets

Most people think that trimming down the calories alone can shed off their excess weight. Probably this is because of the trend there is in advertising about low-calorie food products and beverages. What people don’t know is that this could be dangerous because when they decrease their calorie intake way to below the required levels, the body begins to digest

Photo by WeEatTogether
Photo by WeEatTogether

the fats. Sounds good but it doesn’t actually. Burning fat requires a lot of energy. Since there is not much energy in the body to facilitate metabolism of fat, it will run at a very slow pace resulting to fatigue, illness and weak immune system.

Low-calorie diet is also compensated for by the body by burning muscle. People on this type of diet who revert back to their old eating habits end up gaining back some, if not all the weight they have shed off. This would consist mainly of fats. And since fats have more volume per mass than muscle, they end up having the same weight as before but more bulky. In losing weight, one should keep in mind that they should lose excess body fats only.

However, one can try out eating small meals at more frequent intervals. This way the body will not think that it is being starved and will not store food as fat.

 

Eat Properly

One may have considered junking the crash diet option but he should also not forget to watch what he is eating. Variety must always be considered so that one may be able to get the necessary

nutrients from his diet. It is also healthier to eat food which is roasted, steamed or broiled rather than fried. It is also important to include a lot of fibre in the diet. Frequent rehydration is also necessary.

 

Pump Up Lean Muscle Mass

Muscles burn calories when they work; they even do so at rest. Unlike fats which just lie around, bulge around the pants and dangle beneath the sleeves, muscles burn calories all-day round. With this fact, one can start weight loss by increasing muscle mass. The more muscles, the less fat will be left. This is attainable starting with working out with resistance exercises.

 

Engaging in Aerobics

Aerobics are not only good for the heart by increasing cardio-vascular endurance. Aerobics also help in increasing lean muscle mass while simultaneously decreasing excess body fat. Aside from these, aerobics make the metabolic process more efficient and its rate high, even after a long while. Imagine burning fat efficiently while driving along the freeway or even while watching television.

 

Extra “Push”

Some people believe that smoking and caffeine can actually help in losing weight. This can perhaps be true; however, they do the body more harm than good because of their side-effects. For that extra “push”, one can try out taking food supplements. After all, 95% of these products out in the market actually does good.

 

On Taking Diet Pills

Over-the-counter diet pills affect the amount of weight one loses as well as how long one keeps that amount of weight off. However, one must be wary of the side-effects of these diet pills. As such, one must faithfully follow the instructions provided for in the packaging. It is also prudent to consult the physician anyway before trying out these drugs and also to find out which type would be best for the individual.

Losing weight does not have to mean sacrifice and suffering. It actually means opening up to a more full and healthy life where one may not have to feel bad about himself having to look the way he does or not being able to do what he wants to do. Losing weight might entail a little adjustment plus the discomforts, but as the old saying goes, “no pain, no gain.” Besides fat, what has one got to lose anyway?

Selecting Exercise That Suits You

We all have the moment where we try and find excuse for skipping exercise. Some try to force themselves by signing up fitness center packages, thinking that will help to force them to exercise as it would be a waste of money, if otherwise.

The simple fact is, If you choose something that file000845412568you don’t like, you won’t be able to carry onfor a long period of time. Think about it for a second – if you don’t like jogging, you aren’t going to get up at 6 AM and go running. If you can’t find something that you like, then by all means choose something you hate the least, which will normally be walking.

Walking is a great exercise, as it suits all levels of fitness. Anyone can start a walking program at any time, it’s normally the intensity and duration that varies. Walking is also a social exercise, as it isn’t difficult to find a training partner to chat with while you exercise. Walking with a partner will also make time go by faster.

No matter what exercise you choose, you should start at a low level of intensity and build it up over a period of weeks, which is essential to the longevity of your exercise program. If you start off too hard, you could end up with an injury which will require time off to recover.

If you are really in bad shape, you should start off by walking for 10 minutes each day. Then, increase it by 5 minutes every 2 weeks. To make things more interesting, you should try walking a different course every few days. You can also roster different friends to walk with you each day of the week.

If walking isn’t your thing, then you may want to try a fitness center. They have loads of variety and normally have trainers on hand to answer any questions you may have. When you choose a fitness center, make sure that they give good service.

If they aren’t willing to treat you well before you join, then they certainly won’t after you join. You should also make sure that the equipment they use is well taken care of. It’s easy to find out, as all you have to do is listen to the machines. If they squeak a lot or make noise, then chances are they aren’t being taken care of. Most of the fitness centers offer free trial and tour nowadays so don’t hesitate to join one.

If you still aren’t sure what you should do, then you should look into golf or tennis. Both are good social activities in most areas, and you can even meet new friends. Tennis is great for fitness although it isn’t for someone who is just starting out. If you haven’t exercised in a long time, then golf may be the best activity for you.

Remember, whatever you choose, consistency is the key. If you are exercising just once a week or every 2 weeks, you won’t see any significant result for a while.

 

Does Yoga Help In Losing Weight?

You’ve probably heard from people around you that they practice Yoga for weight loss. You’re probably wondering how much “stretching your body” could help in losing those extra pounds.

 

Puzzled?

Yoga is an ancient practice that’s estimated to have been around for 2500 years or more. In recent years, the idea of yoga for weight loss surfaced following the claim that yoga can help create an ultimate sense of wellbeing. The definition of “wellbeing” is the state of being healthy, where your body is free from all harmful elements in the environment, including calories.

In addition, yoga is highly effective in boosting metabolism. Higher metabolism results in higher calories burning rate.

 

However, critics claimed that yoga is not as effective a weight loss method as what others believed.  According to them doing the yogic exercises regularly is not a quick-fix for weight loss.

They are probably right! The fact is that, yoga CAN be highly effective for weight loss, ONLY IF it is done together with healthy diet and lifestyle.

 

 Yoga Exercises for Weight Loss

Generally, all of the exercises involved in yoga are said to promote weight loss – forward bends, back bends, inversions, and twisting positions are among the most well-known.  They are great for stimulating the endocrine system of your body, and boost metabolism which in turn burns a more calories.

 

Exercises like the sun salutations, standing poses, camel pose, shoulder stand, bridge, rabbit and plow poses are also capable of boosting metabolism in the body as all of these are performed in series.

Caution: Beginners should take it one-step-at-a-time when learning yoga, regardless if the person is overweight or not. Always perform these exercises under supervision of your instructor and do not over stretched.

A personal friend of mine who’s not overweight, sprained her neck during a regular yoga session some years back. She wasn’t able to go to work and it took her 2 years to recover.

 

Yoga Diet and Healthy Lifestyle

As mentioned earlier, the yoga exercises are not so effective for weight loss, if they are not performed along with proper diet and a healthy lifestyle.  So if you want to see yourself losing weight while practicing yoga, you should exert certain efforts and interest in maintaining a healthy lifestyle and a proper diet.

 

Note that the yoga diet is rich in fiber, legumes, whole grains and vegetables; low in fat, processed foods and animal protein.  So to achieve better results when doing yoga for weight loss, note all the foods that are allowed and the foods that are restricted.  As simple as that!

 

Fun Facts!

Manchester United legend Ryan Giggs practices yoga to help cure his career-threatening hamstring injuries. He went on to play for another decade and retired in May 2014 at the age of 40!

P.s: Most European leagues football players retire in their early 30’s.